Friday, 11 April 2014

Did you know Spider Web?

Did you know Spider Web? 

Spiders. 
This animal is a group of phyla including invertebrates and arthropods . In Arthopoda phyla , the spider goes into free-living Arachnoidea class and are carnivores with piercing and sucking the body fluids prey . Spiders belong to the arachnid order to characterize the abdomen is not segmented and have poison glands on its kelisera .

In Sefalotoraks there are four pairs of legs, and pedipalps kelisera. Spiders do not have mouth to chew. They have a pair of large fanged jaws which serves to inject digestive enzymes that will kill their prey. His abdomen are spinnerets that there are many spigots. Spigot is fine thread drain holes gland which secretes a fluid containing elastic protein in the air to form fine threads is called a spider's web.

There must be some of you who had to wonder, how could cobwebs owned Spiderman became so strong that it could hold the weight of the super-heavy? It is only in the film. But you know, that is actually a real spider webs are also remarkable strong fiber!
The resulting thread is a thread of spider silk protein based called fibrions. This yarn is very strong, even if there is steel and spider thread with the same weight, spider silk is stronger and more elastic. Both of these characteristics make the spider thread one of the greatest material. Scientists also tried to make artificial spider silk.
Thread of spider silk is secreted as a liquid by a spinner in the spider's body, this spinner is a special gland that is located at the tip of the abdomen of the spider. In the event of contact with air, the liquid instantly hardens into a strong silky smooth. When produced, the spider pull the thread becomes long as needed to use his legs.
Yarn is woven into a spider web to catch prey. Well, then why not a spider caught in its own web? First, the spider knows which part of the sticky webs. Second, the spider moves gently over the net, as if moved by a sudden adhesive on the net will harden. Therefore there is hardly any possibility of exposed spiders trapped backfire alias own net.

Benefits of spider webs. 

Spider webs have many features that make the scientists researching and looking for new innovations pertaining to the welfare of human life . Scientists use spider silk as a model when creating a material called Kevlar . Speed ​​bullet five hundred feet per second can snag most of the objects in his ering , except for items made from Kevlar . However , spider silk ten times stronger than kevlar . This thread is also thinner than a human hair , lighter than cotton , but stronger than steel , and it is recognized as the strongest material in the world .

Webs of spider silk is extremely strong materials, 20 times stronger than steel and twice as bending of the fiber poliamide. Can be stretched up to 31% without fracture, is more flexible than aramid fibers, finer than a human hair and lighter than cotton. This material such as a sheet of thick pencil could stop a Boeing 747 in flight immediately upon. Spider silk is composed of more than 50% polymerized protein called fibroine with molecular weights between 200000-300000.

In addition to its exceptional ability , the spider is also an animal species that spread is very wide and relatively easy on the can . Up to now , about 40,000 species of spiders have been found and classified into 111 parts . However, given that these animals are so diverse , many of which are very small stature , often hidden in nature , and even many specimens in the museum that has not happened with a good description , it is believed that the possibility of a variety of types of spiders can reach 200,000 species entirely .

Spider webs. 

Spider webs are made of threads of load-bearing frame and encrusted spiral thread catcher adhesives, as well as the unifying thread binding thread load-bearing frame, spiral threads catcher, and the binder yarns.

There are many types of spider webs that can be found in this world. Spider web shape can be distinguished based on the way a spider weave, namely:

- Net ball spiral, which is produced by the spider family Araneidae,
           Tetragnathidae and Uloboridae.
- Spiderweb, associated with the family Theridiidae.
- Funnel, was divided into primitive and modern.
- Pipes, Sheets, and the Dome.

Distribution of spiders in the world. 

There are more than 40,000 species of spiders in the world are already known , and more than thousands of species yet to be identified . Research in Indonesia said that about 50 new species of spiders are found on the island of Irian Jaya , and some newly discovered species also in foreign countries. Araneus diadematus species found in gardens of various countries in Europe , whereas Nephila clavipes is found in the Americas region , and Argentina .

Applications and benefits of cobwebs. 

Broadly speaking, the use of spider webs were divided into three groups;

a) As a textile material.
Spider webs have the privilege that is robust in withstanding the pressure and have good elasticity, making it excellent for use as a textile material as bullet proof vests, clothing resistant to rips, safety belts, parachutes and nets.

b) As an environmentally friendly polymer materials
Cobwebs have bioactive properties good for the environment so it is good for the manufacture of polymeric materials for example plastic or fiberglass biodegradable bottles.

c) As a biomedical material.
Because it has anti-bacterial properties and biocompatible, so it can be utilized in medical as in surgical sewing thread, adhesive material on the tendon, as well as materials for artificial ligament maker.

Scientists Reveal Secret Power spider webs.
Scientists in the United States managed to find out why the cobwebs able to withstand great force. They claim these findings could be used to help design a new generation of super-strength materials.

According to scientists, the tremendous power of spider webs not only due to the raw materials of silk yarn that is tough, but also intricate webs design itself.

Markus Buehler of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, said the real power of spider webs lies not in its constituent silk thread. "But the change in mechanical properties when there is on the net," he said.

The structure of complex net plays an important role. When one strand of yarn broken or damaged, for example, the overall strength of spider webs actually increased. According to Buehler, making nets confiscated most of the energy spiders that animals need a design that prevents major repair when damaged nets.

The scientists also discovered silk threads on a spider web has the ability to become soft or rigid, depending on how much load it takes. "It's not as natural or man-made fibers other," said Buehler again.

The scientists compared the spider silk thread with three other ingredients as a maker of nets. Apparently, the spider silk six times more resistant to damage when hit by falling branches or high winds.

Similarly, when given the additional load. Only one interwoven threads of spider silk damaged. With minimal damage, the spiders only need to do minor repairs on any existing damage to their webs instead of making a new net.

What is also surprising, when the researchers reduced the load of up to 10 percent of various points on the spider's web, the web is actually 10 percent stronger. According to this study, the thread of spider silk is five times stronger than a similar thread made of steel.

Recent research published in the journal Nature, Friday, February 3, 2012, this finding, spider webs contain two types of silk thread. The first type is the silk thread stretched stiff and dry as the radius from the center point to the edge of the net.

The second type is the silk thread that is thinner and sticky, so-called "sticky silk". The second type of thread is a circle, stick to the fingers dry silk. Sticky silk is also useful for trapping prey caught in the spider web.

So, thank you for reading this article.
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
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Did you know ants nest Efficacy of Papua.

Did you know ants nest Efficacy of Papua. 


The use of ant nest as a medicine is hipokotil or tuber is cut into thin, and can be used fresh or after drying.
In order to be saved, that have been cleaned potatoes chopped dried aerated in the open, not under the sun. It can also be dried in an oven at a temperature of not more than 60 degrees centigrade. Parts used drugs partially, pieces of tubers that have been made powder boiled in water for 15-30 minutes, after boiling stew, do not be too long because there are efficacious chemical constituents damaged if heated too long. To use one day quite used 10 g of dried tuber powder in 300 cc of water. Once filtered drunk to 3 times a day. The use of this dose ant nest can be added and non-toxic.
The use of ant nest ant nest tuber parts have medicinal properties because it contains primary and secondary metabolites host plants , ant plants and their ants themselves . So many kinds of useful substances as nutrients ( primary metabolites ) as well as nutritious substances such as flavonoids , saponins , glycosides and tannins . In addition the results also indicate the amount of vitamin E and some minerals .



From the research, it is known that the product uses ant to treat breast and uterine cancer. Anticancer properties of ant nests likely due to many substances are efficacious as an antioxidant. One mechanism that has been revealed is the induction of apoptosis (cell death) is indicated by the change in morphology and DNA fragmentation. Side effects to be one question that many recommended, fortunately based on research that has been done, there are no side effects or toxic properties of ant nests.

As epiphytes , plants anthill potential to be developed as an anticancer drug . Nutritious substances in it derived from plants and plant host ant nest itself , secondary metabolites are formed during the symbiosis of new drug compounds , as plant parasites that have been developed as anticancer drugs (eg tea parasite).
Many users report the ants nest their health condition improved after taking this herb regularly, some had not even reported using insulin again. The ability of ant nests in the treatment of diabetes maid allegedly because the herb's ability to restore the function of organs, particularly the pancreas, so it can produce enough of the hormone insulin, so blood sugar can be processed into a substance that is easily absorbed by the body.

Many people who suffer from cancer cured after taking ant nest. How to consume the ant nest can be done by drying the ant nest and then grind to a powder in the powder boiled in water for several long brown boiling water and drunk as tea (tea ant) ​​or you can also buy it because it's been many who sell tea Papua ant extract in the form of packaging and at affordable prices.

Efficacy of ant nests.

Anthill Papuans. 

When you hear his name ( ant ) what's on your mind ? For those who are unfamiliar with the name of the herb one , will be surprised to know that when the ant is not an ant nest rather than the name of a plant . Plant this one is better known as the ants compared with the scientific name Myrmecodia pendans . Not much seen nests in the ground , because this ant is a plant that is indeed the case for ant burrows . Ant nests are epiphytic plants that attach to foreign plants attached to host plants . For example, is the eucalyptus tree ( Melalueca ) , mountain pine ( Casuarina ) , kaha ( Castanoposis ) , beech ( Nothofagus ) and some other types of wood in the forest . This plant has a single stem without branching and bulging forming the base of the building such as tuber called hypocotyl ( caudex ) surface is rough and covered with sharp spines . The hypocotyl has meat that is usually used as a home or a nest of ants so that the hollow - cavity , therefore the plant is referred to as ant plants . The enlarged part of the stem which is usually called a tuber . So different than the tuber that is usually a part of the stem that is in the ground . Ant nests seen hanging on the host tree .

Ant plants grow in Malaysia, the Philippines, Cambodia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Papua, Papua New Guinea, Cape York to the Solomon Islands.
In Papua itself many ant populations because the area is mostly plateau, the right place to plant ant nests to breed, which is over 600 meters above sea level. The hypocotyl / tuber ant always inhabited by only one type of ant. Noted, there are 26 plant species of ants nest. Ant nests and plants used for the treatment is Myrmecodia species pendens Merr & Perry. This species is widely grown in the area of ​​Wamena, Papua. This type of ant nest inhabited by ants Ochetellus sp. Ants nesting in the bulb inside the ant nest because there is enough food in the form of carbohydrates so it feels safe. Because the surface of the bulb filled with thorns.

Additionally Myrmecodia pendes included in the Rubiaceae tribe or species other than M. tuberose bellosa, M. uberosa versteegii, M, pulvinata tuberose, tuberose papuana M, M. and M. tuberose tuberose manusensis dahlil. Besides Myrmecodia are kind or another species that is Hydnophitum, but that is widely used is the type species Myrmecodia Atua. So there is cooperation backwardly mutualisis symbiosis between the ant nest, ants and host plants. The result of this symbiosis is a variety of metabolites present in the tuber flesh-hollow cavity that is carbohydrates, tannins and various flavonoids. Results symbiosis is what causes ant (ant abandoned his) have ants nest as drug efficacy.

From the research that is currently still researching ant plants for human health, plants that have a lot of the natural compounds such as flavonoids and tannins. Both of these compounds become an important part of the immune system to defend against health problems from either outside the body or from the body itself.

Flavonoids are natural compounds is one possessed of a nest of ants, is a type of flavonoid compounds that are part of the natural phenolic compound that is used to form the plant pigments. Flavonoids are needed by the body, for someone who are on a healthy diet, not only that flavonoids are also very good as potent antioxidants that prevent cancer.

Flavonoids will work with more perfect when combined with vitamin C, the flavonoids will work more optimally to improve the performance of vitamin C, prevents bone loss, as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory.

Anthill pretty much have the original compound content of ant nests and are carried away from natural compounds, natural compounds content contained in the ant nest, such as flavonoids, tannins, antioxidants tocopherol (vitamin E) and several other minerals such as calcium, sodium, potassium, zinc, iron, phosphorus and magnesium.

Some elements of the natural compound also has its own properties that are quite good and are needed by the body . So no doubt about the efficacy and the benefits that can be achieved from eating ants nest either in powder or capsule form that both are equally good benefits for our bodies in a fairly long period of time and helps the body to maintain health and body organs against the adverse effects of other health problems .

In empirical (real experience) ant not only able to cure tumors and cancer. Other diseases were successfully overcome by the relatives of the glass plates that include bronchitis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke.

Therefore, many people are now relying on the hope of a cure anthill . Research on ant nests are not only carried out by researchers from their own country , even the researchers from the neighbor country Malyasia proved through a series of scientific research . In vitro tests , family members Rubiacceae it proved unable to cope with the cancer cells . Which proves the efficacy of it is Qui Kim Tran of the University National of Hochiminch City and colleagues Yasuhiro Tezuka like, Yuko Harimaya , and Arjun Day Banskota . Those who work in Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University .

Qui Kim Tran took by ki nam (the term for ant nests) in Vietnam from Tinh Bien, Provincial and Provincial Angiang Lamdong. In the country's rice granary anthill traditionally used to treat a wide variety of diseases such as diarrhea, hepatitis, vaginal discharge, malaria and rheumatism.

Plants that have a weight of 2-3 kg was then extracted with various solvents such as water , methanol , and methanol - water mixtures . Those cancer cells then grow 3 or metastesis very easily spread to other body parts such as cervical cancer , lung cancer and colon cancer .

Each extraction was plainly given to every cancer cell, the result is amazing, ant nests have antiproliferative activity. In medicine, cell proliferation means of very rapid growth and abnormal. Cancer cell growth is meant rapid and uncontrollable. According to dr. Willy Japaries MARS, he said Antiprofilerasi means it inhibits the multiplication of cells.

Papua is known as a region that produces quite a lot of plants that can be used as a traditional herbal medicine that does have benefits and tremendous benefits that can be used as a drug to combat a variety of diseases . Although the location of the region is located at the eastern tip of Papua maritime Indonesia , has been known since long Papua save a lot of benefits of various plants or plants that can be used as medicine .

Now widely used traditional medicine as one of the best alternative despite having to compete with modern treatment. But treatment using natural herbal ingredients is still a place for people from a disease without having to incur the cost is quite expensive as a good solution, herbal remedies do not result in any side effects, if used according to instructions, process, or how to make a potion properly.

Ant nest is one of the herbs or plants from native Indonesian Papua. Now many as a cure or treatment for early prevention using ANTS NEST. Ant nests are known to have a lot of the natural compound derived from the slab and saliva ants that form a maze. Extract ant nests have been through the process of free radical test 1-1-diphenyl-2-pikrilhidazil (DPPH) with inhibitory concentration (IC50) between 28-49 ppm. Ant nests also have been through a treatment process using extraction technology that meets the requirements of CPOTB (Good Traditional Medicine).

Anthill Traditionally used to help treat a variety of diseases. Some of them are as follows: 

1. Various types of cancer and tumors such as brain cancer, nasal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, uterine cancer, skin cancer, leukemia cancer, prostate cancer.
2. Cardiac disorders
3. Stroke mild or severe
4. Eliminating breast lumps
5. Tuberculosis (TB) and lung
6. Piles / Hemorrhoids new or old
7. Migraine (headaches)
8. Rheumatism
9. Smoothen and increase breast milk (ASI)
10. Blood circulation, stiff and sore muscles
11. Improve and increase stamina
12. Increase vitality.

Benefits Ants Nest Papua For Health.
Maybe for some people who do not know the benefits of ant nests, in your mind when you heard about the ant nest, perhaps that comes to the house ant is used as the residence of red ants, white ants, black ants, and so forth.

But the question here is not a place to stay that was made by the ants , but epiphytic plants or plant , where the plant is attached to a large tree and underneath there is a cavity , and in this cavity by ants usually live with a certain type .

This plant can be found in Papua, which has the Latin name of plants Myrmecodia pendans has a lot of benefits for human health. The content that is in the plant of substances such as nutrients, substances flavonoids, E, saponins, minerals, glycosides, and tannins.

With a variety of substances have benefits Papua Ants nest that can be utilized as a healer of disease, such as for the treatment of breast and uterine cancer, because the ants nest contains many substances that can be used as an antioxidant.

For Health Benefits Ants Nest 

As for the other benefits you can get the treatment you are using ant nests with offers benefits for health, among others, as an auxiliary in the treatment of diabetes, due to the properties obtained from the ant nest plant can recover many functions of the body organs especially those of the pancreas, which produces hormone insulin, so blood sugar can easily be processed into a substance that can then be easily absorbed by the body, and much more for health treatment of the ant nest.

With the content of naturally occurring compounds found in plants anthill you do not need to doubt anymore , the benefits you can get with your eating ants nest with various offers processed , either alone or mixed herbal medicine packaging .

If you use this treatment with ant nest, you do not need to be worrying about the side effects that you will suffer, because it is based on the research there will be no side effects.

So, thank you for reading this article.
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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Sunday, 2 March 2014

Did You Know About Fugu?

Did You Know About Fugu? 


Wrapping the fish. 


Fugu (river pig) is the Japanese word for pufferfish and foods made from these fish of the genus Takifugu, Lagocephalus, or Sphoeroides) or porcupine fish (of the genus Diodon). Fugu can be very toxic because it contains tetradotoxin, because it must be careful provision to remove toxic parts so as not to contaminate the meat.

Prep cook at a restaurant Fugu very closely watched by law in Japan and several other countries, only a qualified chef and has special training are allowed to handle these fish. Preparation at home will usually result in death.


Fugu is served as sashimi and chirinabe. The most delicious part of the Fugu is the liver, but also the most toxic, and presentation of this organ has been banned in Japan in 1984. Fugu has become one of the most famous and challenging dishes in Japanese cuisine.

Toxic Ingredients. 

Fugu contains a number of deadly poison tetrodotoxin in the organs, especially the liver, ovaries and skin. Fugu poison is sodium flow barrier, paralyzes the muscles while the victim is conscious. The victim can not breathe and eventually dies from asphyxiation. There is no known antidote, the standard treatment is to help the victims of respiratory and circulatory assist systems until the poison is metabolized and excreted by the body.

Advances in research and cultivation has enabled farmers to produce mass Fugu. The researchers suspect that the Fugu tetrodotoxin came from eating other animals that contain tetrodotoxin-laden bacteria and that these fish have developed immunity in the body over time. Today, many farmers producing fugu 'poison-free' fugu by removing the bacteria. Usuki, a town in Oita Prefecture has been known in fugu sales are free of toxins.

History. 

Japan's population has been eating fugu for hundreds of years. Fugu bones can be found in several mounds called Kaizuka, from the Jomon era more than 2,300 years ago. Tokugawa Empire (1603-1868) forbade the consumption of fugu in Edo and his realm to another. Fugu become a habit again after the effect of weakening the empire. In the western part of Japan, where the influence of weak governance and fugu is more easily obtained, a variety of ways to cook fugu developed to be safe to consume. During the Meiji era (1867-1912), fugu again banned in many areas. Fugu also be the only food that is prohibited in the Empire of Japan, for his safety. Fugu in earlier times and now is a favorite dish in China is mentioned in the literature about the early 400 BC. Fugu be the first order of the three types of the most delicious food of the Yangtze river.

Species. 

Torafugu, or tiger pufferfish (Takifugu) is an edible species most classy and most toxic. Other species are also edible are: Higanfugu (T. pardalis), Shōsaifugu (T. vermicularis syn. Snyderi), and Mafugu (T. porphyreus). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan have data that shows which part of the body of the edible species. List the name of the genus Lagochepalus safe and Sphoeroides and porcupine fish (Harisenbon) of the genus Diodon.

Policy. 

Strict arrest policy now in force in Japan to protect populations from extinction Fugu. Fugu mostly harvested in the spring of all time'' spawning'' and then cultured in net cages in the Pacific Ocean. Place the biggest selling fugu in Japan is in Shimonoseki.

Fugu prices rise in autumn and highest in winter, this season is second best because the fish will be more fat to survive in the cold. Live fish that arrived at the restaurant and lived in a large aquarium with a strikingly demonstrated. Fugu ready existing in grocery stores, are required to present an official license. Intact fish should not be sold to the public.

Since 1958, fugu chefs must obtain a license to prepare and sell fugu to the public, it takes 2-3 years of training. Licensing examination process consists of a written test, a fish identification test and practice test; preparing and eating fish. Only 35% of applicants who pass. Small errors lead to failure or, rarely, death. Consumers believe that this training process makes eating fugu in restaurants or markets safe. Commercially Fugu sometimes large in the environment that cause less toxic fish.

Starting in 2012, the restaurant Fugu in Japan can sell in packs that have been processed by the managers that have been licensed.

Price. 

A plate of Fugu can be sold ¥ 5,000 (about U.S. $ 50), but can also be found at a price of 2000 yen (about U.S. $ 20), and a full meal Fugu (usually 8 servings) can cost 10,000-20,000 yen (nearly U.S. $ 100-200) or better. Costs incurred to appreciate the chef slicing fish very carefully to get the most amount of meat. Special knife, called fugu hiki is usually sold separately from the other knives in the store.

Processing. 

Sashimi - the most popular food is fugu sashimi, also called Fugu sashi or tessa. The knife used to cut very thin so it can be sliced ​​fugu transparent, a technique known as usuzukuri.

Fugu Shirako.


 

Milt - eggs / roe ( Shirako ) puffer fish is a valuable food high in Japan .Usually found in department stores, and like cod milt, soft roe becomes kind of the most popular. Processing baked and served with salt.

Fried - Fugu can be eaten with fried as Fugu Kara-age. Bake - perfect fins dried, roasted and served with hot sake, this food is called Hire-Zake. Boil - Vegetables and fugu can be boiled as Fugu-CHIRI, or tetchiri, very mild fish taste so difficult to distinguish from the vegetables and sauce. Salad - If thorn pulled out skin, the skin can be eaten as a salad called yubiki.

Toxins. 


Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potential neurotoxin that can shut down electrical signals in nerves by binding to the pores of sodium channel proteins in nerve cell membranes. Tetrodotoxin is not lost when cooked. TTX does not mix with the blood flow to the brain, so that the victim was conscious when his muscles paralyzed. Experiments conducted on mice, the levels found 8 ɲg LD50 per kg of body weight. Pufferfish toxin is less susceptible due to mutations in the protein sequence of the sodium channel cells.

As mentioned previously, the availability of commercially fugu in supermarkets or restaurants is very safe, and although it does not sound, because the toxicity of this product is very rare. Most deaths by fugu caused by untrained people catch and process fish, accidentally poisoning themselves. In some cases, they even eat the most toxic parts of the liver as a flavoring.

Recent evidence suggests that tetrodotoxin is produced from a type of bacteria - such as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis, certain species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio, and others which are a source of toxic pufferfish.

Due to high levels of toxins and a high chance of death if not treated properly, fugu is the only food that should not be eaten by the Emperor of Japan.

Treatment. 

Symptoms of digesting the dose that causes death by tetrodotoxin is dizziness, fatigue, headache, nausea, or difficulty breathing. The victim remained conscious but unable to speak or move. Breathing stops followed by asphyxiation.

There is no known antidote, treatment is carried out as follows: empty the contents of the stomach, take charcoal to bind the toxins, and provide medical assistance to toxins is reduced. Toxicologist from Japan at several medical research centers are now working on the development of an antidote for tetrodotoxin.

So, thank you for reading this article.
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Do You Know Fish Manta ?

Do You Know Fish Manta ?


Manta rays (Manta birostris) is one of the biggest species of stingray in the world. The width of the body from the tip of the pectoral fin to fin the other end reaching almost 7 feet (possibly more as there are reports that there is a wide manta body reaches 9.1 meters ) . Heaviest weights ever measured manta itself around 3 tons .

Manta can be found in tropical oceans around the world - approximately between latitudes 35o north to 35o south latitude . Spreading wide and unique appearance caused this fish has many names ranging from "Pacific manta", "Atlantic manta",
" devil fish " to " sea devil " . In Indonesia alone , manta rays have various local names such as es necklace, plampangan, and pari buffalo (perhaps because parts of the body like a horn on his head so that he was considered similar to a buffalo).

Manta rays later categorized as " close to a threat " (near threatened ) by the IUCN because although the number has not been categorized as endangered , but the estimated future population will shrink until it is threatened with extinction. The population of manta rays are considered in imminent danger due to high fishing activity and increasingly polluted sea conditions , but their low birth rate .

Classification .

Manta put in Myliobatidae family consisting of 40 different species of stingray . Family of stingray is also known as the " eagle rays " ( eagle ray ) because they do not live on the ocean floor and swim freely so that when they are viewed at a glance like the eagle "flying " in the sea . Myliobatidae family is divided into 4 subfamily and manta rays put in Mobulinae subfamily that also filled by a stingray of the genus Mobula which have a similar appearance manta rays but smaller in size . The name " manta " itself comes from the Spanish language meaning " blanket " .

There are 3 species previously considered part of the genus Manta : Manta birostris ( Atlantic manta rays ) , Manta hamiltoni ( Pacific manta rays ) , and Manta highway ( Prince Alfred's manta rays ) . Third manta rays themselves are very similar to each other . Later , after an examination of the examples of their genes , all three species were included in the same species : species birostris Manta . However , some are saying that there are at least two species of manta : one large and migratory , while the other is smaller and would rather settle .

Anatomy .


Manta has a physical broadly similar to most stingray with wide pectoral fins and a small tail like a whip. Fin width makes her chest look flat. Manta wear fins chest moves by making waves on the section near the back of the head to the body so that when seen, manta rays as if he were flying around in the sea. Manta own tail is shorter than most of the stingray's tail and stingless. Skin manta also shrouded slime layer is much thicker than most stingrays. The mucus layer is suspected nothing to protect vulnerable skin. Manta also has a larger brain size than other stingrays and sharks relatives so that they are considered more intelligent than other relatives.

Characteristic of the manta is a pair of " horns " near his mouth . " Horn " is actually a pair of fins sefala ( head ) which helps incorporate sea water containing plankton food and can be bent into the mouth . In the mouth there is also a 300 peg -shaped teeth small and almost hidden under the skin . These teeth are not used to eat , but the tooth may be useful when manta mating . Manta also has five pairs of gill slits in the bottom of the body to remove water that enters through the mouth . On the inside there is a gill slit gill filters or disc filters ( filter plate ) which serves to trap plankton that go along with sea water .

Manta has a variety of colors , ranging from black , blue -gray , brown , to almost white . Color pattern on the body also varies manta where the manta rays found in the eastern Pacific the lower part of his body is predominantly black , while the type of manta rays are found in the western Pacific , the lower part of his body pale color . It is not known what the cause of the coloring function and this varies , but the color varies easier for scientists to distinguish manta from one region to other regions . Another unique thing about the coloring manta is they have some sort of pattern on the shoulders and down her body and these patterns differ in each individual mantas that are considered similar to fingerprints in humans .

Behavior .


Manta rays are animals that generally has a calm behavior . He also showed friendly behavior with the divers so that divers who happened to be nearby can hold and even ride . He is also commonly seen near sea level and around coral reefs . Manta rays can be found in fairly large quantities in areas rich in plankton , manta rays are known but not showing signs of social interaction with each other and form a group .

Food .

Manta is known as one of the big fish that eat plankton ( filter feeders ) . He opened his mouth to eat in a way so that the plankton while swimming in the water that goes into his mouth . He can also use a pair of horn -like fins head to direct plankton that went into his mouth . In this way it is considered passively hunt because he does not chase their prey to eat . Manta is also known to take small animals such as shrimp and juvenile fish .

Reproduction .

In the breeding season , a large number of manta will gather to find a mating partner . Some manta males compete with each other to get the manta female partner . Manta male who managed to get a female manta fins partner will be holding on to use his teeth and clenched his stomach , then begin entering the marriage with his genitals into the female genital opening . The marriage lasted for approximately 90 seconds .

Ovovivipar manta ray is where the eggs hatch while still inside the mother's body . A female manta manta could bring 2 babies at once in the body . The period of " gestation " manta itself is not known for certain, but the possibility can last between 9-12 months . The newly hatched baby manta and out of its mother's body with fins that are still folded condition . Baby manta become active as soon as he developed fins and can immediately begin to swim . A newborn baby manta known to be measuring 1.2 meters wide and weighing 45 kg . Baby manta can grow very fast due within one year , their body width has reached nearly 2 times the width when first born .
Maximum age manta rays themselves are known to reach 20 years .

Jumping from water .


Manta is famous because he can jump out of the water and because of its large size , it always attracts attention while making the leap . There are several theories as to why they jump out of the water . They may do it to escape from predators or to remove parasites that attach to the body . Other theories , manta use it to communicate with each other . Manta is also expected to jump out of the water to show strength when it was looking for a partner .

Interaction with other animals .

Small fish known to be near the manta . One species of marine fish are most commonly known to love being near the manta is a remora fish ( Echeneida sp . ) . This fish is commonly found attached to the underside of a manta wearing some kind of suction on her upper body . Remora got to stick to the mantas advantage because he is protected from predators , and he obtained a " free food " in the form of the parasite that attaches to the skin manta .

Predators .

Marine animals known as manta rays are the main prey of sharks such as tiger sharks ( Galeocerdo Cuvier ) . Manta does not have such a defense tool or the sting of sharp teeth so he relied on his swimming ability to escape from his enemies ( including possibly by jumping out of the water ) . Manta is also known to wear fins chest to hit his attacker .

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Know the type Jerbung Shrimp.

Know the type Jerbung Shrimp. 


Shrimp is the name of this one is not too familiar sound to our ears. Shrimp is one of the species of the family Penaeidae. Jerbung shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) is a natural biological wealth are widespread in almost all Indonesian. Jerbung shrimp or white shrimp very well known even in foreign countries with their local name - each, such as: Australia (Banana Prawn / White Prawn),
Japan (Tenjikuebi / Banana Ebi), Malaysia (red leg Shrimp / Prawn sand), Pakistan (Jaira), Philippines (Hipon bouts), Thailand (Kung chaebauy).


Penaeus merguiensis has rostrum almost triangular shape, with no clear yellow body color belt with brown spots and can reach a total length of 24 cm for females and 20 cm for males.
Preferred habitat is the bottom of the sea shrimp (10-45 m) are melted, usually consisting of a mixture of mud and sand. The area receives a lot of exposure to the watershed is an area favored shrimp. Shrimp areas like river water mixing that occurs with sea water (estuarine), because in this area there are a lot of food and nutrient substances needed shrimp. Therefore, the area around the mouth of the river is a good area for shrimp. The size, the extent of the river that empties into an area will determine the broad or narrow area of ​​shrimp in the waters.

Shrimp jerbung actively foraging during the day, not meliang and live in the murky bottom waters (Penn, 1984), thus catching shrimp jerbung better done during the day. Therefore, fishermen do jerbung shrimp fishing during the day.

Based on data from FAO, Indonesia is the world's largest shrimp jerbung. Total production can reach about 65 thousand tons. Total production is proportional to the availability of resources jerbung shrimp in our waters. In addition, many types of fishing gear in Indonesia, which makes jerbung shrimp as the main catches. Some of the fishing gear used to catch shrimp jerbung, including: jatilap (trammel net), net dogol, traps (traps) and other net operated sweep bottom waters.

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Know Fish Layur The sleek .

Know Fish Layur The sleek .


Layur ( Trichiurus lepturus ) .

Layur ( Trichiurus lepturus ) is one kind of fish catches of the Fisherman Indonesia. Perhaps , the name of this fish is not so familiar in your ear . Similarly, the shape and taste of the fish .
Layur abundant in the waters of Indonesia , probably widespread in almost all parts of the Indonesian archipelago . Almost every fishing port that has the fish auction place we will be able to easily find this Layur fish sold by the fisherman who had just unloading cargo .


Layur is a type of pelagic fish and have a positive fototaksis properties ( easily attracted by light stimulation ) . Therefore, the fisherman uses bait to lure Layur light . Fishermen usually bring petromak or fluorescent lights for fish attraktor Layur .
At the time of the evening , where Layur straddling of the base toward the surface , will be attracted by the bait Layur light installed by the fisherman . When approaching the surface Layur fish , fisherman will be able to easily capture both use fishing line or nets . Layur a social type of fish , they usually live migratory or clustered . Thus , Fishermen can obtain a lot of catches when ruaya Layur have got the right place .

Layur can be easily found in the sea when the east wind season (April to October). These months is the month of harvest Layur for the Fishermen .

Layur long and slender bodies . Body length can reach 2m and can weigh up to 5kg . Based on the source of Wikipedia , maximum age Layur ever recorded was 15 years old . Although his body lean and do not have a lot of meat , but Layur still much sought after . This is because the meat is soft and does not have a lot of thorns . Various recipes can also use the basic ingredients of fish Layur , halted from Layur Soups , Peyek Layur (Javanese ) or Layur dried .

This fish is also one type of fish for export . Main export is fish Layur Japan and Korea . Japanese and Korean residents are very fond of dishes made ​​from fish Layur .

For those of you who have never tasted , you should try it !

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Thursday, 30 January 2014

Wist u Indonesian Restaurant Restaurant - de meest bekende in Europa .

Wist u Indonesian Restaurant Restaurant - de meest bekende in Europa .

Voor degenen onder u die regelmatig naar het buitenland reizen of wonen in Europa , kunt u de Indonesische keuken missen .

U kunt nog steeds genieten van de geneugten van de Indonesische keuken van enkele van de beroemde restaurants in de blauwe continent .
Indonesisch restaurant beroemd in Europa .

Blauw .


 Dit restaurant is gevestigd in de stad Utrecht , Nederland . Het restaurant is gevuld met luxe inrichting en vintage kunst met een minimalistische sfeer . Voor eten , beroemd voor het serveren rijsttafels Blauw en Indonesische gerechten met rijst met een set van bijgerechten op een tafel .

Sama Sebo .


Gelegen in het centrum van Amsterdam , Nederland . Sama Sebo is een restaurant dat heeft gestaan ​​voor een lange tijd , met tinten van bruin als een cafe en een pub . Sama Sebo presenteert ook rijsttafels .

Indonesië.


Ja, zijn naam is Indonesisch en gevestigd in Parijs, Frankrijk . Dit restaurant met een korreltje genuanceerd Indonesië rijsttafels , loempia's, rendang , totdat een mengelmoes . Met de traditionele bouwvormen , gamelanmuziek en Balinese dans vrijdagavond zal toevoegen aan uw plezier bij het eten van voedsel .

Chameleon .


Dit restaurant is gelegen in het centrum van Dublin , Ierland . Met een lesbische sfeer van dit restaurant op de bovenste verdieping evenals dienend als sate , gado - gado , gebakken rijst en natuurlijk rijsttafels .

Spandershoeve .


Spandershoeve gevestigd in Hilversum , Nederland . Waar in de periode 1998-2007 , dit restaurant een Michelin-ster , dat is een eerbetoon aan de beste restaurants in Europa te krijgen. Net als de andere restaurants , is dit restaurant een steunpilaar rijsttafels .

Dus , bedankt voor het lezen van dit artikel .
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Tang ; restaurant Indonesia